STRAW OF THE AGRICULTURAL PLANTS AS AN ALTERNATIVE SOURCE OF ENERGY
Ukraine has significant amounts of land resources for agricultural production. It is able to provide its population not only with food, but as a raw material for bioenergy. As raw materials in bioenergy, waste and agricultural remnants that are formed in the process of harvesting agricultural crops and in the process of their processing can be used, in particular straw of cereals, legumes, corn and sunflower seeds, sunflower husk, rice puddings, pulp sugar beets. For energy needs in bioenergy, agricultural waste is used by direct burning or by processing into solid, liquid or gaseous fuels. In the production of gaseous fuels from agricultural waste, not only the source of energy – biogas, but high quality fertilizers are formed. In addition, biogas is easy to use, store and transport. It can be used on decentralized block heating plants or can be supplied to an existing gas transmission network. The process of biogas production takes place in bioreactors, the constructions of which are quite diverse and differ by form, material, methods of mixing and heating of biomass, volume of processing raw materials. Among the agricultural wastes that bring the greatest energy potential, there are straw of cereals, which is available in large volumes, is actively studied and is increasingly used as a raw material for biogas production.
In this article, for the production of biogas from straw of agricultural plants, the design of a bioreactor is proposed, which allows for efficient mixing and warming up of organic biomass, which allows improve the efficiency and reduce the energy consumption of a bioreactor. Analytical studies to determine the amount of biogas output were used for maize straw, cereal straw and rye straw. Research has shown that the amount of biogas output depends on the type of straw and the time of fermentation. The largest amount of biogas output is generated within 10 days of the day the organic biomass is loaded. It was established that the largest amount of biogas is formed from straw of grain crops, with the maximum value of 1.75 m3. The smallest amount of biogas is formed from rye straw; the maximum amount of biogas output is 1.3 m3.