ISOLATION OF CHITIN-GLUCAN COMPLEX FROM ASPERGILLUS NIGER BIOMASS, A BY-PRODUCT OF CITRIC ACID PRODUCTION
The excretion of radionuclides, toxic substances, pathogenic microorganisms from the human body contributes to the preservation of health and the duration of life. In the world, there are various natural biopolymers, in particular, biopolymer of the 21st century, chitin and its derivatives, which have a significant effect on the body. The daily recommended intake of chitin ranges from 3 to 7 g. In the food industry, chitosan (a chitin derivative) is used as a stabilizer, preservative, clarifier, emulsifier, and structurant. In medicine, based on chitosan, apyrogenic surgical threads and sutures are made. The sorption ability of chitin is used to purify water and localize leaks of radioactive substances. Scientific developments are under way to improve the technologies for the isolation of chitin and its derivatives from chitin-containing raw materials of various origins as well as expand the scope of application of these biopolymers. On the production scale of the Republic of Belarus, the isolation of the chitin-glucan complex from a by-product of citric acid production does not require significant raw material costs, and at the same time solves the problems associated with the processing of the by-product. The extraction of the chitin-glucan complex was carried out according to two developed technologies: having pretreated chitin-containing raw material with a solution of hydrochloric acid and an ozone-air mixture. The organoleptic evaluation and physicochemical analysis of the samples were carried out as well as the comparative evaluation with imported samples of chitosan. It has been established that the chitin-glucan complex has some advantages in terms of flavor characteristics as compared to imported analogues: anonymized odor and neutral taste, which makes it possible to use it not only as an independent food product, but also as a functional ingredient in other foods that do not alter taste of the main product. For the first time in the Republic of Belarus, a study of the morphological structure, chemical composition and X-ray diffraction analysis of the chitin-glucan complex were conducted. It has been established that the chitin-glucan complex has a porous structure and an amorphous-crystalline structure.