PLANTS AND FUNGAL PATHOGENS UNDER CLIMATE CHANGE, A REVIEW
Climate change has become one of a major problem in the recent world in the past few decades. Pollution caused by human activity affects environment factors universally. The global increase of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) level, temperature and unpredictable extreme weather caused by greenhouse effect influence the environment. It is observed that climate change factors affect various ecosystems. Nowadays, global food safety is an issue for increasing human population. The decrease of areas suitable for agriculture, deforestation, increased pathogen activity contributes to threats to global food safety. Changes in the environment also affect flora and fauna, causing unpredictable behaviour. Rapid changes in the environment cause abiotic stress to plants and decrease the possibility to survive. The number of studies reveals that adaptation, migration, changes of chemical compounds, the mutation is the key to survival for plants. Scientists agree that climate change has a significant impact on agriculture and horticulture, affecting not only plants but also microorganisms which cause plant diseases. One of the most important threats to global food safety comes from fungal pathogens, which cause numerous loss in agriculture and horticulture annually. The scientific publications reveal that increases in CO2, temperature and unpredictable precipitation patterns have an influence not only on plants but also their fungal pathogens. These pathogens develop mechanisms which help to adapt to environmental changes and become more resistant to current fungicides. Host shifts, migration, new genetic strains, disease outbreaks also occur more often under changing environment. Understanding how climate change factors can affect plant host and fungal pathogens interactions will make a considerable influence on pest and disease management in future. Widely used fungicides are well known for their harmfulness and limited effect to pathogens. New alternative biocontrol methods are under investigation in the presence of climate change when fungal pathogens become more resistant to chemical control.